Cairo is the capital of Egypt
Cairo (Arabic, القاهرة Al-Qāhira 'the fort', 'the victorious') is the capital of Egypt and its governorate (muhafazah or province). It is the largest city in the Arab world, the Middle East and Africa, and the Egyptians often call it simply the name of the country, مصر, pronounced in Arabic Misr cult and Egyptian dialect Masr.
Its metropolitan area includes an approximate population of about 16 million inhabitants, 3 making Cairo the eleventh most populous city in the world. It is also the most populated metropolitan area of the entire African continent.4 It is known by the Egyptians as the "mother of all cities" and the "city of a thousand minarets." 5
It was founded in 116 a. C., in what today is known as Old Cairo, when the Romans rebuilt an old Persian fort by the River Nile. Before its foundation, Memphis or other cities were the capital of the pharaonic empire. The current name is due to the Fatimids, who baptized the city with the name, Al-Qahira. After several invasions as the Mamluks, Ottomans, Napoleon and the British, Cairo became sovereign capital in 1952.5
Cairo is located on the banks and islands of the Nile River, south of the delta. To the southwest lies the city of Giza and the ancient Necropolis of Memphis, with the Giza Plateau and its monumental pyramids, as the Great Pyramid. To the south is the place where the old city of Memphis was built.
Located to 14 km of Heliópolis next to the Nile, the Romans established a fortress and the present city has its base in four successive constructions Muslim. Al-Fustat (The Camp, in Arabic: الفسطاط) also called Fustat and Misr al-Fustat, was the original nucleus and the first capital of Arab Egypt. It was built between the Roman fort and the river by General Amr ibn al-As immediately after the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641, fortifying it and building in it the Amr Mosque, the first erected in Egypt and Africa. It was the administrative center of Egypt from which the use of Arabic as administrative language and special taxes to Christians and Jews was imposed, until the city was burned by the vizier Shawar in 1168 to prevent that it fell into the hands of the crossed invaders. It is part of the so-called ancient Cairo.
Cairo, Al-Qahira (قاهرة) 'The Triumphant', was founded by the Fatimid Yawhar al-Qaid in 972, north of the palaces and covering al-Askar and Al-Qatta'i, and there was built the mosque Of Al-Azhar, the first university in history. This city became the urban center over the years, although at the beginning of the Caliphate Fatimí Al-Fustat remained the capital.